Islam. An enumeration of its characteristics


Islam suffers from the excess of sacrum – there are too many aspects of the lives of Muslims that are beyond rational discussion because they are regulated by a divine decree. They were supposedly revealed by God and cannot be changed. This is the case of faith rather than reason, the orientation towards the holy text rather than external reality, and the direction towards the past rather than the future. In order to revive its glory, Islam must re-Hellenise itself and venerate Ibn-Rushd rather than Al-Ghazali. The latter’s sola fide (only faith) must be replaced with the former’s fides and ratio (faith and reason) as the foundation of Islam. Islam must recognise that modern civilisation can only be built on three pillars of rationalism, empiricism and humanism. At present, Islam has a number of distinct, mostly problematic, characteristics such as:

the centrality of the holy text,

the primacy of the holy text over visible and tangible reality,

no innovation in the matters of faith,

orientation towards the past,

the times of Muhammad treated as a reference point for future generations,

idealisation of the beginnings of Islam,

divine voluntarism which requires total submission to the will of God,

God knowing both universals and particulars,

God’s Word preceding the universe,

God being sovereign ie omnipotent and not necessarily benevolent,

the absence of the concept of natural causality (God intervenes in every action and is present between the cause and the effect),

low awareness of the role of Aristotelian philosophers (Mutazilites) in the early history of Islam,

the rejection of the Aristotelian tradition of Averroism in Islam which was replaced in the twelfth century by fideism of Al-Ghazali; Al-Ghazali initiated the process of de-hellenisation in Islam, while Europe was going in the opposite direction,

misunderstanding of the causes of Islam’s glorious past; contrary to what most Muslims think Islam was triumphant until the twelfth century not because of Islam as such but because of the incorporation of the Greek thought and the fusion of faith and reason,

modern world  seen as the corruption of the idealised past,

no priesthood,

no religious hierarchy,

no separation of church and state,

Quranic literalism,


sectarianism manifesting itself in the treatment by Muslims of denominations within Islam other than one’s own,

the suppression of sufism,

the leading role of the Arabs which is often resented by non-Arabs,

puritanical versions of Islam in the Middle East and syncretism in south-east Asia,

sharp distinction between what is haram and halal,

Manichaeism evident in the dualistic system of dar-al-Islam (the House of Peace) and dar-el-Harb (the House of War),


essentialism and a-historicism,

fear of modernity,

religious concepts and vocabulary used in the description of the modern world,

visionary and radical conservatism in social matters and sometimes in politics,

the concept of ummah which delegitimises nation states and elevates local grievances to global issues,

a weak sense of belonging to a nation,

the concept of truth being of divine origin rather than being understood as the correspondence of thought and external reality,

orthopraxy, which means that one has to observe correctly strict rules in everyday behaviour, rather than orthodoxy,

jihad or the pressure to seek perfection,

ritual forms of capital punishment (decapitation and lapidation),

blasphemy treated as a serious transgression and severely punished,

corporate punishment, including flogging,

strict dietary laws,

strict dress code,

faith-based and ritualised ethics,

ossified rules of social behaviour,

strict rules of sexual behaviour,

prohibition of homosexual acts,

the sharp division between the sexes,

the inequality of women,

utter sexualisation of the female body,

strong blood ties,

social conservatism,

the obligation to protect the honour of the family, going as far as killing a family member to protect it,

fasting during Ramadan,

self-flagellation and self-mutilation by Shia Muslims in celebration of Ashura,

genital mutilation (in some regions),

the concept of jahiliyyh which prevented Muslims from absorbing knowledge from the antiquity (after Al-Ghazali),

the concept of the caliphate in which the ruler combines secular and religious authority,




strict monotheism,


memorisation of Quran seen as a noble activity and admiration for hafizes, or those who know the whole Quran by heart,

strong feeling of ressentiment towards the West,

tendency to blame the West for its own failings,


fear of acculturation,

the conviction that the Islam’s past glory can only be revived through Islamisation,

self-absorption and distrust of the non-Islamic world,

the feeling of oppression by external powers,

the syndrome of besieged fortress,

the feeling of righteousness,

hyper-sensitivity to criticism,

inflexibility of religious convictions,

distrust of secular institutions,

secular governments perceived as a force of corruption,

tendency to legitimise terrorism as a weapon of the powerless,

in the eyes of Westerners, anachronistic concepts and vocabulary,

rejection of democracy,

no freedom of speech,

weak state institutions, with governments overcoming their weaknesses by brutality towards the people,

the authorities treating people as subjects rather than citizens,

governments ruling rather than governing,

the lack of democratic mechanisms that would ensure a smooth transition of power,

The alienation of elites from the wider population,

Indigenous neo-colonialism, with narrow groups that have political power behaving like colonial authorities towards their own societies,

the political role of the army in many Muslim countries as the supposed guarantor of stability, while in fact the army acts as the defender of the status quo and its own interests,


religious universalism co-existing with ethnic allegiances,

apostasy punishable by death.


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